alexa Differential roles of angiogenic chemokines in endothelial progenitor cell-induced angiogenesis.


Angiology: Open Access

Author(s): Kanzler I

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This study aimed to analyze the role of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-derived angiogenic factors and chemokines in the multistep process driving angiogenesis with a focus on the recently discovered macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)/chemokine receptor axis. Primary murine and murine embryonic EPCs (eEPCs) were analyzed for the expression of angiogenic/chemokines and components of the MIF/CXC chemokine receptor axis, focusing on the influence of hypoxic versus normoxic stimulation. Hypoxia induced an upregulation of CXCR2 and CXCR4 but not CD74 on EPCs and triggered the secretion of CXCL12, CXCL1, MIF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These factors stimulated the transmigration activity and adhesive capacity of EPCs, with MIF and VEGF exhibiting the strongest effects under hypoxia. MIF-, VEGF-, CXCL12-, and CXCL1-stimulated EPCs enhanced tube formation, with MIF and VEGF exhibiting again the strongest effect following hypoxia. Tube formation following in vivo implantation utilizing angiogenic factor-loaded Matrigel plugs was only promoted by VEGF. Coloading of plugs with eEPCs led to enhanced tube formation only by CXCL12, whereas MIF was the only factor which induced differentiation towards an endothelial and smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype, indicating an angiogenic and differentiation capacity in vivo. Surprisingly, CXCL12, a chemoattractant for smooth muscle progenitor cells, inhibited SMC differentiation. We have identified a role for EPC-derived proangiogenic MIF, VEGF and MIF receptors in EPC recruitment following hypoxia, EPC differentiation and subsequent tube and vessel formation, whereas CXCL12, a mediator of early EPC recruitment, does not contribute to the remodeling process. By discerning the contributions of key angiogenic chemokines and EPCs, these findings offer valuable mechanistic insight into mouse models of angiogenesis and help to define the intricate interplay between EPC-derived angiogenic cargo factors, EPCs, and the angiogenic target tissue.

This article was published in Basic Res Cardiol and referenced in Angiology: Open Access

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