alexa Direct determination of chlorophenols in water samples through ultrasound-assisted hollow fiber liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction on-line coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.
Chemical Engineering

Chemical Engineering

Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques

Author(s): Chao YY, Tu YM, Jian ZX, Wang HW, Huang YL

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Abstract In this study we on-line coupled hollow fiber liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (HF-LLLME), assisted by an ultrasonic probe, with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this approach, the target analytes - 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 3-chlorophenol (3-CP), 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP), and 3,4-dichlorophenol (3,4-DCP) - were extracted into a hollow fiber (HF) supported liquid membrane (SLM) and then back-extracted into the acceptor solution in the lumen of the HF. Next, the acceptor solution was withdrawn on-line into the HPLC sample loop connected to the HF and then injected directly into the HPLC system for analysis. We found that the chlorophenols (CPs) could diffuse quickly through two sequential extraction interfaces - the donor phase - SLM and the SLM - acceptor phase - under the assistance of an ultrasonic probe. Ultrasonication provided effective mixing of the extracted boundary layers with the bulk of the sample and it increased the driving forces for mass transfer, thereby enhancing the extraction kinetics and leading to rapid enrichment of the target analytes. We studied the effects of various parameters on the extraction efficiency, viz. the nature of the SLM and acceptor phase, the compositions of the donor and acceptor phases, the fiber length, the stirring rate, the ion strength, the sample temperature, the sonication conditions, and the perfusion flow rate. This on-line extraction method exhibited linearity (r(2)≥0.998), sensitivity (limits of detection: 0.03-0.05 μg L(-1)), and precision (RSD\%≤4.8), allowing the sensitive, simple, and rapid determination of CPs in aqueous solutions and water samples with a sampling time of just 2 min. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This article was published in J Chromatogr A and referenced in Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques

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