alexa Direct inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation by anthrax toxins in vivo.
General Science

General Science

Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense

Author(s): Comer JE, Chopra AK, Peterson JW, Knig R

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The causative agent of anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, produces two toxins that contribute in part to its virulence. Lethal toxin is a metalloprotease that cleaves upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases. Edema toxin is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. Previous studies demonstrated that the anthrax toxins are important immunomodulators that promote immune evasion of the bacterium by suppressing activation of macrophages and dendritic cells. Here we showed that injection of sublethal doses of either lethal or edema toxin into mice directly inhibited the subsequent activation of T lymphocytes by T-cell receptor-mediated stimulation. Lymphocytes were isolated from toxin-injected mice after 1 or 4 days and stimulated with antibodies against CD3 and CD28. Treatment with either toxin inhibited the proliferation of T cells. Injection of lethal toxin also potently inhibited cytokine secretion by stimulated T cells. The effects of edema toxin on cytokine secretion were more complex and were dependent on the length of time between the injection of edema toxin and the isolation of lymphocytes. Treatment with lethal toxin blocked multiple kinase signaling pathways important for T-cell receptor-mediated activation of T cells. Phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and the stress-activated kinase p38 was significantly decreased. In addition, phosphorylation of the serine/threonine kinase AKT and of glycogen synthase kinase 3 was inhibited in T cells from lethal toxin-injected mice. Thus, anthrax toxins directly act on T lymphocytes in a mouse model. These findings are important for future anthrax vaccine development and treatment.
This article was published in Infect Immun and referenced in Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords