Author(s): Jankovic J
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Abstract Botulinum toxin (BoNT) has been used for over a quarter of century for the treatment of well over 100 different indications. Many of the symptoms for which BoNT has been found to be effective occur in a variety of neurological disorders. One neurodegenerative disorder in which BoNT has been used extensively to treat various symptoms is Parkinson's disease (PD). This review will highlight the following therapeutic applications of BoNT in conditions associated with PD: limb dystonia, blepharospasm and lid apraxia, bruxism, cervical dystonia (anterocollis), camptocormia, hand and jaw tremor, rigidity (painful shoulder), freezing of gait, sialorrhea, dysphagia (achalasia), seborrhea, hyperhidrosis, overactive bladder, and constipation.
This article was published in Toxicon
and referenced in Dentistry