Author(s): Menon P, Gopal M, Prasad R
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Abstract The dissipation of chlorpyrifos (20 EC) at environment-friendly doses in the sandy loam and loamy sand soils of two semi-arid fields and the presence of pesticide residues in the harvested groundnut seeds, were monitored. The movement of chlorpyrifos through soil and its binding in the loamy sand soil was studied using 14C chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos was moderately stable in both loamy sand and sandy loam soils, with half-life of 12.3 and 16.4 days, respectively. With 20 EC treatments the dissipation was slower for standing crop than seed treatment, indicative of the high degradation rates in the bioactive rhizosphere. In soil, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) was the principal breakdown product. Presence of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-methoxypyridine (TMP), the secondary metabolite, detected in the rhizospheric samples during this study, has not been reported earlier in field soils. The rapid dissipation of the insecticide from the soil post-application might have resulted from low sorption due to the alkalinity of the soil and its low organic matter content, fast topsoil dissipation possibly by volatilization and photochemical degradation, aided by the low water solubility, limited vertical mobility due to confinement of residues to the upper 15 cm soil layers and microbial mineralization and nucleophilic hydrolysis. Contrary to the reports of relatively greater mobility of its metabolites in temperate soils, TMP and TCP remained confined to the top 15 cm soil. The formation of bound residues (half-life 13.4 days) in the loamy sand soil was little and not "irreversible." A decline in bound residues could be correlated to decreasing TCP concentration. Higher pod yields were obtained from pesticide treated soils in comparison to controls. Post-harvest no pesticide residues were detected in the soils and groundnut seeds.
This article was published in J Environ Sci Health B
and referenced in Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry