Author(s): E Wambre, M Bonvalet, V B Bodo, B Maillre, G Leclert
A better understanding of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses is needed to help improving immunological therapies. Objective To compare CD4(+) T cell responses against seasonal (Bet v 1) and perennial (Der p 1, Der p 2) allergens.
Major histocompatibility complex class II peptide tetramers were engineered to monitor allergen-specific T cell responses. After in vitro expansion, tetramer(+) cells were tested for surface markers using cytofluorometry. Cytokine gene expression and production were assessed using quantitative PCR and cytokine surface capture assays, respectively.
Tetramer(+) cells were detected in 19 patients allergic to house dust mites (HDM), seven allergic to birch pollen, 13 allergic to both and nine non-allergics with either an HLA-DRB1(*) 0101, (*) 0301, (*) 1501 or an HLA-DPB1(*) 0401 background. High-avidity T cells are elicited against the immunodominant Bet v 1(141-155) epitope, whereas broader low-avidity T cell responses are induced against Der p 1(16-30) ,(110-124) ,(171-185) and Der p 2(26-40,107-121) epitopes. Responses against Bet v 1 involve effector (CDL62 low, CCR7 low) or central (CD62L(+) , CCR7(+) ) memory cells in allergic and non-allergic individuals, respectively, whereas central memory cells are mostly detected against mite allergens. In non-allergics, both mite and Bet v 1-specific T cells produce IFN-γ and IL-10. In contrast to Bet v 1-driven Th2 responses, mite allergens induce highly polymorphic responses in allergics, including Th1, Th2/Th17 or mixed Th1/Th2 profiles. Mite-specific T cell frequencies in the blood remain in the range of 1-6 × 10(-4) CD4(+) T cells throughout the year.
Different memory CD4(+) T cell responses are elicited in the context of chronic vs. seasonal stimulation with the allergen(s). The heterogeneity in the patterns of CD4(+) T cell responses observed in patients allergic to HDMs should be taken into account for specific immunotherapy.Immunogenetics: Open Access