Author(s): Connor AJ, Chen LC, Joseph LB, Laskin JD, Laskin DL
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Abstract Exposure to excessive quantities of bacterial-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with injury to the lung and the liver. Macrophages are thought to play a key role in the pathogenic response to LPS by releasing proinflammatory/cytotoxic mediators. Macrophage responses to LPS are mediated in large part by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In the present studies we used C3H/HeJ mice, which possess a mutated nonfunctional TLR4, to examine its role in lung and liver macrophage responses to acute endotoxemia induced by LPS administration. Treatment of control C3H/HeOuJ mice with LPS (3 mg/ml, i.p.) was associated with a significant increase in the number of macrophages in both the lung and the liver. This was most prominent after 48 h, and was preceded by expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), suggesting that macrophage proliferation contributes to the response. In liver, but not lung macrophages, LPS administration resulted in a rapid (within 3 h) increase in mRNA expression of Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), key enzymes in antioxidant defense. In contrast, HO-1 protein expression decreased 3 h after LPS administration in liver macrophages, while in lung macrophages it increased. mRNA expression of enzymes mediating the biosynthesis of eicosanoids, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), but not 12/15-lipoxygenase (LOX), was upregulated in liver macrophages 3-24 h after LPS, with no effect on lung macrophages. However, COX-2 protein expression increased in both cell types. Loss of functional TLR4 significantly blunted the effects of LPS. Thus, no major changes were observed after LPS administration in the number of lung and liver macrophages recovered from TLR4 mutant mice, or on expression of PCNA. Increases in HO-1, MnSOD, COX-2 and PGES-1 mRNA expression in liver macrophages were also reduced in these mice. Conversely, in lung macrophages, loss of functional TLR4 resulted in increased expression of COX-2 protein and 12/15-LOX mRNA. These results demonstrate distinct lung and liver macrophage responses to acute endotoxemia are mediated, in part, by functional TLR4. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Exp Mol Pathol
and referenced in Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics