Author(s): Cuajungco MP, Lees GJ
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Abstract Abnormal metabolism of metal ions such as zinc may contribute to neuropathology. Complexing zinc could reduce this pathology. Thus, to examine the effectiveness of metal chelating agents in vivo, a model system was used. This involved determining the ability of chelating agents to prevent neuronal death caused by zinc chloride injected into the rat hippocampus. Significant protection against zinc toxicity was obtained with pyrithione, inositol hexakisphosphate, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) and N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN). The affinity of these agents for zinc varied between 106 M-1 and 1018 M-1. Thus, the affinity for zinc within this range does not appear to be a major factor affecting the ability of chelators to provide neuroprotection. While almost complete protection was found with EDTA and TPEN given simultaneously with zinc chloride, poor protection was obtained if TPEN was given before or after zinc chloride. Other agents either did not protect against zinc-induced neuronal death (zincon), or exacerbated zinc toxicity (BTC-5N and about 40\% of rats injected with a combination of zinc chloride and diethylenetriamine pentaacetate [DTPA]). Rats showing increased damage after zinc plus BTC-5N or DTPA suffered wet dog-like shakes (WDS), suggesting that these zinc chelate complexes can induce seizures resulting in seizure-related damage. In contrast, in the 60\% of rats treated with zinc chloride and DTPA that had no WDS, there was about an 80\% reduction in the size of the zinc-induced lesion. The ability of chelators to cross cell membranes was examined by determining whether Timm's staining for vesicular zinc was reduced following the injection of a chelator into the hippocampus. TPEN and pyrithione reduced Timm's staining for zinc. However, cell permeability was not necessary for a chelator to protect against zinc toxicity. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Brain Res
and referenced in Journal of Membrane Science & Technology