Author(s): Hamilton CE, Papavasiliou FN, Rosenberg BR
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Abstract Polynucleotide DNA and RNA editing enzymes alter nucleic acid sequences and can thereby modify encoded informational content. Two major families of polynucleotide editing enzymes, the AID/APOBEC cytidine deaminases (which catalyze the deamination of cytidine to uridine) and the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs, which catalyze the deamination of adenosine to inosine), function in a variety of host defense mechanisms. These enzymes act in innate and adaptive immune pathways, with both host and pathogen targets. DNA editing by the cytidine deaminase AID mediates immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, providing the antibody response with the flexibility and diversity to defend against an almost limitless array of varied and rapidly adapting pathogenic challenges. Other cytidine deaminases (APOBEC3) restrict retroviral infection by editing viral retrogenomes. Adenosine deaminases (ADARs) shape innate immune responses by modifying host transcripts that encode immune effectors and their regulators. Here we review current knowledge of polynucleotide DNA and RNA editors with a focus on these and other functions they serve in the immune system.
This article was published in RNA Biol
and referenced in Gene Technology