Author(s): Bodkin NL, Ortmeyer HK, Hansen BC
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Abstract Insulin resistance has been proposed as a critical factor in the development of Type II diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary artery disease. However, even in normal healthy individuals, a wide range of in vivo insulin action has been found. In the present study we sought to examine this heterogeneity in insulin action in both normal and spontaneously obese nonhuman primates. Maximal insulin responsiveness as measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin levels, beta-cell insulin response to glucose, glucose tolerance, and adiposity were measured in 22 male rhesus monkeys. Results showed that lean animals (body fat < or = 22\%) had higher insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (M rate: 14.42+/-1.8 mg/kg FFM/min) compared to obese (8.08+/-0.8). The obese monkeys, with 23-49\% body fat, had a wide range of M values (5.32-14.29 mg/kg FFM/min) which showed no relationship to degree of adiposity. In all monkeys, M values had a strong inverse correlation with fasting plasma insulin levels (r=-0.76; p<0.001), but not with fasting glucose or glucose disappearance rate. We conclude that neither degree of obesity above a critical threshold nor range of glucose tolerance is related to insulin resistance; however, in individuals with normal glucose tolerance an early reliable indicator of defective insulin action appears to be fasting insulin concentration. Longitudinal determination of basal insulin levels obtained under standardized conditions so as to minimize extraneous variability is likely to strengthen the ability to predict insulin resistance and possible later development of overt Type II diabetes.
This article was published in Obes Res
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism