Author(s): Hawkins AJ, Golding SE, Khalil A, Valerie K
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Abstract Radiation and other types of DNA damaging agents induce a plethora of signaling events simultaneously originating from the nucleus, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane. As a result, this presents a dilemma when seeking to determine causal relationships and better insight into the intricacies of stress signaling. ATM plays critical roles in both nuclear and cytoplasmic signaling, of which, the DNA damage response (DDR) is the best characterized. We have recently created experimental conditions where the DNA damage signal alone can be studied while minimizing the influence from the extranuclear compartment. We have been able to document pro-survival and growth promoting signaling (via ATM-AKT-ERK) resulting from low levels of DSBs (equivalent to ≤2 Gy). More extensive DSBs (>2 Gy eq.) result in phosphatase-mediated ERK dephosphorylation, and thus shutdown of ERK signaling. In contrast, radiation does not result in such dephosphorylation even at very high doses. We propose that phosphatases are inactivated perhaps as a result of reactive oxygen species, which does not occur in response to 'pure' DNA damage. Our findings suggest that clinically relevant radiation doses, which are intended to halt tumor growth and induce cell death, are unable to inhibit tumor pro-survival signaling via ERK dephosphorylation. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Radiother Oncol
and referenced in Journal of Brain Tumors & Neurooncology
- Yung-Chih Kuo
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