Author(s): Stern MC, Umbach DM, van Gils CH, Lunn RM, Taylor JA
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Abstract Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the United States. The main identified risk factor is cigarette smoking, which is estimated to contribute to up to 50\% of new cases in men and 20\% in women. Besides containing other carcinogens, cigarette smoke is a rich source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can induce a variety of DNA damage, some of which is repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. The XRCC1 gene protein plays an important role in BER by serving as a scaffold for other repair enzymes and by recognizing single-strand DNA breaks. Three polymorphisms that induce amino acid changes have been found in codon 194 (exon 6), codon 280 (exon 9), and codon 399 (exon 10) of this gene. We tested whether polymorphisms in XRCC1 were associated with bladder cancer risk and whether this association was modified by cigarette smoking. Therefore, we genotyped for the three polymorphisms in 235 bladder cancer cases and 213 controls who had been frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and ethnicity. We found no evidence of an association between the codon 280 variant and bladder cancer risk [odds ratio (OR), 1.2; 95\% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.6]. We found some evidence of a protective effect for subjects that carried at least one copy of the codon 194 variant allele relative to those homozygous for the common allele (OR, 0.59; 95\% CI, 0.3-1.0). The combined analysis with smoking history suggested a possible gene-exposure interaction; however, the results were not statistically significant. Similarly, for the codon 399 polymorphism, our data suggested a protective effect of the homozygous variant genotype relative to carriers of either one or two copies of the common allele (OR, 0.70; 95\% CI, 0.4-1.3), and provided limited evidence, albeit not statistically significant, for a gene-smoking interaction.
This article was published in Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
and referenced in Journal of Meningitis