Author(s): Thakkar RR, Wang OL, Zerouga M, Stillwell W, Haq A,
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Abstract The use of a fish oil vehicle for cyclosporin A (CsA) can decrease the toxic effects of CsA but the mechanism is unclear. Here we examine the mechanism by which docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a fish oil-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid, can alter the toxic effects of CsA on mouse organ function, endothelial macromolecular permeability, and membrane bilayer function. Mice given CsA and fish oil showed increased liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, incorporation of DHA, and evidence of oxidized fatty acids compared to control animals. We hypothesized that the toxic effects of CsA were primarily a result of membrane perturbation, which could be decreased if DHA were not oxidized. The presence of CsA (10 mol\%) alone increased dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine membrane permeability by seven fold over control (no CsA, no DHA). However, if non-oxidized DHA (15 mol\%) and CsA were added to the membrane, the permeability returned to control levels. Interestingly, if the DHA was oxidized, the antagonistic effect of DHA on CsA was completely lost. While CsA alone increased endothelial permeability to albumin, the combination of non-oxidized DHA and CsA had no effect on endothelial macromolecular permeability. However the combination of oxidized DHA and CsA was no different than the effects of CsA only. CsA increased the fluorescence anisotropy of DPH in the liquid crystalline state of DPPC, while DHA decreased fluorescence anisotropy. However the combination of CsA and DHA was no different than DHA alone. We conclude that non-oxidized DHA can reverse the membrane perturbing effects of CsA, and the increases in endothelial macromolecular permeability, which may explain how fish oil is capable of decreasing the toxicity of CsA.
This article was published in Biochim Biophys Acta
and referenced in Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access