Author(s): Daviss WB, Diler R
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Abstract OBJECTIVES: Studies have primarily focused on adverse life events (ALEs) as potential causes rather than as outcomes of pediatric depression. The current study prospectively examines ALEs in a sample of youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) to determine whether having a major depressive disorder (MDD) at baseline (T1) predicts counts of child-dependent or child-independent ALEs at a second assessment (T2) ≈ 8 months later. METHODS: Subjects with ADHD 11-18 years old were drawn mostly from a tertiary mental health clinic and evaluated with semi-structured diagnostic interviews, and parent and teacher questionnaires of ADHD severity. Eighteen with and 61 without initial MDD at T1 were compared at T2 regarding counts of subsequent overall, child-dependent, and child-independent ALEs reported on life events questionnaires by the child or parent. RESULTS: The group initially with MDD had higher overall ALEs (p=0.01) and child-dependent ALEs (p ≤ 0.001) but not child-independent ALEs (p=0.12) at T2 relative to the nondepressed group, although only 3 of 18 continued to meet full criteria for MDD. The group initially with MDD also had a higher baseline ADHD severity (p=0.04) and proportion of oppositional or conduct disorders (p=0.004). In multivariate analyses, the group initially having MDD had a higher adjusted mean at T2 of child-dependent ALEs (p=0.02), but not of overall ALEs (p=0.06), after controlling for other T1 variables, including ALEs of the same type, ADHD severity, externalizing disorders, and the interaction of externalizing disorders with MDD. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that child-dependent ALEs are potentially an important outcome after youth with ADHD have an episode of MDD. Youth with ADHD who develop comorbid MDD should be closely monitored and offered interventions to address the potential burden of child-dependent ALEs lingering after a depressive episode.
This article was published in J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Astrophysics & Aerospace Technology
- Eugene Stephane Mananga
On Fer and Floquet-Magnus expansions: Application in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics
- Yosef Yarden
Classically, the 3âuntranslated region (3âUTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3âUTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5âUTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3âUTR RNA (referred as I3âUTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3âUTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3âUTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3âUTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3âUTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3âUTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3âUTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990âs to 2000âs, world scientists found several 3âUTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3âUTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3âUTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3âUTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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- Jonathan Blackledge
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