Author(s): Comings DE, MacMurray J, Johnson P, Dietz G, Muhleman D
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Abstract The defence style questionnaire (DSQ) was administered to Caucasian males consisting of 123 subjects from a V.A. addiction treatment unit (ATU), 42 Tourette syndrome (TS) subjects, and 49 controls. For the ATU and TS subjects, there was a significant decrease in the mean score for mature defenses and a significant increase in mean score for immature defenses compared to controls. Many of the individual subscores showed the same significant differences. Dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene haplotypes, identified by allele specific polymerase chain reaction of two mutations (G/T and C/T) 241 base pairs apart, were determined in 57 of the ATU subjects and 42 of the controls. Subjects with the 1 haplotype tended to show a decrease in mature and an increase in neurotic and immature defense styles compared to those without the 1 haplotype. Of the eight times that the subscale scores were significant for haplotype 1 versus non-1, they were always in this direction. There results suggest that the DRD2 locus is one factors controlling defense styles. The difference in the mean scores between controls and substance abuse subjects indicates that other genes and environmental factors also play a role.
This article was published in Biol Psychiatry
and referenced in Journal of Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy