alexa Dosage compensation in mammals: fine-tuning the expression of the X chromosome.
Genetics & Molecular Biology

Genetics & Molecular Biology

Journal of Down Syndrome & Chromosome Abnormalities

Author(s): Heard E, Disteche CM

Abstract Share this page

Mammalian females have two X chromosomes and males have only one. This has led to the evolution of special mechanisms of dosage compensation. The inactivation of one X chromosome in females equalizes gene expression between the sexes. This process of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a remarkable example of long-range, monoallelic gene silencing and facultative heterochromatin formation, and the questions surrounding it have fascinated biologists for decades. How does the inactivation of more than a thousand genes on one X chromosome take place while the other X chromosome, present in the same nucleus, remains genetically active? What are the underlying mechanisms that trigger the initial differential treatment of the two X chromosomes? How is this differential treatment maintained once it has been established, and how are some genes able to escape the process? Does the mechanism of X inactivation vary between species and even between lineages? In this review, X inactivation is considered in evolutionary terms, and we discuss recent insights into the epigenetic changes and developmental timing of this process. We also review the discovery and possible implications of a second form of dosage compensation in mammals that deals with the unique, potentially haploinsufficient, status of the X chromosome with respect to autosomal gene expression.

This article was published in Genes Dev and referenced in Journal of Down Syndrome & Chromosome Abnormalities

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

OMICS International Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version