Author(s): Veldhorst MA, Nieuwenhuizen AG, HochstenbachWaelen A, van Vught AJ, Westerterp KR,
Abstract Share this page
Abstract Dietary protein plays a role in body weight regulation, partly because of its effects on appetite. The objective was to compare the effects of high or normal casein-, soy-, or whey-protein breakfasts on appetite, specific hormones, amino acid responses and subsequent energy intake. Twenty-five healthy subjects (mean+/-SEMBMI:23.9+/-0.3 kg/m2; age:22+/-1 years) received standardized breakfasts: custards with either casein-, soy, or whey-protein with either 10/55/35 (normal) or 25/55/20 (high)En\% protein/carbohydrate/fat in a randomized, single-blind design. Appetite profile (Visual Analogue Scales) and amino acid concentrations were determined for 4 h whereas plasma glucose, insulin, active Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1), and active ghrelin concentrations were determined for 3 h; the sensitive moment for lunch was determined. Subjects returned for a second set of experiments and received the same breakfasts, ad lib lunch was offered 180 min later; energy intake (EI) was assessed. At 10En\%, whey decreased hunger more than casein or soy (p <0.05), coinciding with higher leucine, lysine, tryptophan, isoleucine, and threonine responses (p<0.05). At 25En\% there were no differences in appetite ratings. Whey triggered the strongest responses in concentrations of active GLP-1 (p<0.05) and insulin (p<0.05) compared with casein and/or soy. There were no differences in EI. In conclusion, differences in appetite ratings between different proteins appeared at a normal concentration; at 10En\% whey-protein decreased hunger more than casein- or soy-protein. At 25En\% whey-protein triggered stronger responses in hormone concentrations than casein- or soy-protein. The results suggest that a difference in appetite ratings between types of protein appears when certain amino acids are above and below particular threshold values.
This article was published in Physiol Behav
and referenced in Journal of Metabolic Syndrome