Author(s): Cheng SB, Quinn JA, Graeber CT, Filardo EJ
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Abstract GPER is a G(s)-coupled seven-transmembrane receptor that has been linked to specific estrogen binding and signaling activities that are manifested by plasma membrane-associated enzymes. However, in many cell types, GPER is predominately localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and only minor amounts of receptor are detectable at the cell surface, an observation that has caused controversy regarding its role as a plasma membrane estrogen receptor. Here, we show that GPER constitutively buds intracellularly into EEA-1+ endosomes from clathrin-coated pits. Nonvisual arrestins-2/-3 do not co-localize with GPER, and expression of arrestin-2 dominant-negative mutants lacking clathrin- or β-adaptin interaction sites fails to block GPER internalization suggesting that arrestins are not involved in GPER endocytosis. Like β1AR, which recycles to the plasma membrane, GPER co-traffics with transferrin+, Rab11+ recycling endosomes. However, endocytosed GPER does not recycle to the cell surface, but instead returns to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and does not re-enter the ER. GPER is ubiquitinated at the cell surface, exhibits a short half-life (t½;) <1 h), and is protected from degradation by the proteasome inhibitor, MG132. Disruption of the TGN by brefeldin A induces the accumulation of endocytosed GPER in Rab11+ perinuclear endosomes and prevents GPER degradation. Our results provide an explanation as to why GPER is not readily detected on the cell surface in some cell types and further suggest that TGN serves as the checkpoint for degradation of endocytosed GPER.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy