Author(s): Alavijeh MS, Chishty M, Qaiser MZ, Palmer AM
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Abstract The worldwide market for therapies for CNS disorders is worth more than 50 billion dollars and is set to grow substantially in the years ahead. This is because: 1) the incidence of many CNS disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and Parkinson's disease) increase exponentially after age 65 and 2) the number of people in the world over 65 is about to increase sharply because of a marked rise in fertility after World War II. However, CNS research and development are associated with significant challenges: it takes longer to get a CNS drug to market (12-16 years) compared with a non-CNS drug (10-12 years) and there is a higher attrition rate for CNS drug candidates than for non-CNS drug candidates. This is attributable to a variety of factors, including the complexity of the brain, the liability of CNS drugs to cause CNS side effects, and the requirement of CNS drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This review focuses on BBB penetration, along with pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism, in the process of the discovery and development of safe and effective medicines for CNS disorders.
This article was published in NeuroRx
and referenced in Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology