alexa Drug-induced ocular disorders.
Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology

Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology

Author(s): Li J, Tripathi RC, Tripathi BJ

Abstract Share this page

Abstract While beneficial therapeutically, almost all medications have untoward effects on various body tissues and functions, including the eye in which organ toxic reactions are readily detectable. Every part of the eye and all ocular functions could be affected adversely. In this review, we describe the most commonly recognized drug-induced ocular disorders, their specific clinical features, the medications that can cause the problem, the differential diagnosis and possible mechanisms of action, as well as guidelines for the management of the adverse reactions. The eyelids are most frequently involved in drug toxicity that commonly manifests as inflammation, hypersensitivity reaction or dermatitis. Drug-induced keratoconjunctival disorders present mainly as conjunctival hyperaemia (red eye), with or without superficial corneal involvement. Frequently, drug preservatives in topical ocular medications induce these adverse effects. Treatment of blepharospasm with Botox may lead to drooping of the eyelids and corneal exposure. Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome is a drug-induced reaction in patients treated with tamsulosin and who undergo cataract surgery. Certain sulfa-based drugs can cause swelling of the ciliary body and lead to the development of angle-closure glaucoma. In addition, adrenergic agents, certain beta(2)-adrenergic agonists and anticholinergic agents may induce pupillary dilation and precipitate angle-closure glaucoma in susceptible patients. Glucocorticoids administered systemically, topically or intravitreally are known to increase intraocular pressure, which can lead to the development of open-angle glaucoma in susceptible patients. This painless form of glaucoma has also been associated with the use of the anticancer agents docetaxel and paclitaxel. The toxic effects of systemic and topically applied drugs may manifest as cloudiness of the lens. Long-term use of glucocorticoids produces a characteristic posterior subcapsular cataract and, although the opacities may remain stationary or progress, they rarely regress upon drug withdrawal. Systemic administration of phenothiazines or busulfan induce cataractous changes in the anterior or posterior cortex, respectively. Many systemic drugs reach the retina through the vascular supply. Aminoquinolines induce a characteristic bull's eye maculopathy. Phenothiazines bind to melanin granules and can cause a severe phototoxic retinopathy. Typical tamoxifen retinopathy manifests as crystalline deposits in the inner retina. Some patients treated with retinoids have decreased night vision and abnormal dark-adaptation. Patients on long-term treatment with linezolid may develop an optic neuropathy (swollen or pale optic disc), symmetric painless decrease of visual acuity and colour vision, and bilateral visual field defects. A probable link exists between amiodarone and a bilateral optic neuropathy that is very similar to nonarteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION). The most common adverse effects of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (erectile dysfunction drugs) are changes in colour perception, blurry vision and increased light sensitivity; recently these drugs have been also implicated in the development of NAION. A bilateral, retrobulbar optic neuropathy that manifests as loss of visual acuity or colour vision and visual field defect is associated with the use of ethambutol. Many different kinds of medications can cause similar ocular adverse reactions. Conversely, a single medication may affect more than one ocular structure and cause multiple, clinically recognizable disorders. Clinicians should be mindful of drug-induced ocular disorders, whether or not listed in product package inserts, and, if in doubt, consult with an ophthalmologist.
This article was published in Drug Saf and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords