Author(s): Chien CS, Ma KH, Lee HS, Liu PS, Li YH,
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Abstract Thirty percent of osteosarcoma patients die within 5 years. New agents that induce apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells might be therapeutically useful. Here, we characterized the apoptotic mechanism induced by capsaicin in G292 osteosarcoma cells. Our results show that capsaicin induces an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration which is independent of the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration and depletes intracellular Ca(2+) stores, suggesting the presence of endoplasmic reticulum transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor type 1. Capsaicin also activates the mitochondrial caspase 3-dependent death cascade. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, evokes autophagy, as do capsaicin or thapsigargin, a sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor that causes Ca(2+) store depletion. Capsaicin-induced cell death is completely inhibited by co-treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk and increased by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, suggesting the existence of an autophagy-dependent anti-apoptotic mechanism. Capsaicin also induces ERK phosphorylation, which acts as a downstream effector of autophagy. 3-Methyladenine or PD98059, an ERK kinase inhibitor, restores capsaicin-induced cell death in the presence of Z-VAD-fmk, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy activates a second cell death pathway that is caspase-independent. Taken together, our data show that capsaicin causes Ca(2+) depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores and simultaneously activates the mitochondrial caspase-dependent death cascade and autophagy-dependent ERK activation and that the latter counteracts a second death signaling pathway that is caspase-independent. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Eur J Pharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology