Author(s): Shah B, Nair S, Sirsat RA, Ashavaid TF, Nair KG
Indian studies on lipid profile abnormalities in chronic renal failure (CRF) have varied from no abnormalities at all to significant abnormality (hypertriglyceridemia and reduced HDL) as described in the Western literature. Moreover, there is no Indian study on the effect of renal transplantation on the abnormal lipid profile of CRF. The aim of our study was to determine the lipid profile of CRF patients on conservative treatment, end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) treatment and renal transplant patients. We also looked at the effect of fish oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (Max-EPA) on hypertriglyceridemia of CRF. The study included 4 groups; Gp I: control subjects (n = 9, age = 30 +/- 5 yrs), Gp II: CRF patients on conservative treatment (n = 9, age = 49 +/- 17 yrs), Gp III: ESRD patients on HD for at least 3 months (n = 19, age = 53 +/- 9 yrs), Gp IV: 3 months post-renal transplant patients (n = 9, age 31 +/- 11 yrs). The lipids and lipoproteins analysed include total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, Apo A1 and Apo B. It was observed that in Gp II patients triglycerides were significantly elevated (p < .05) and Apo A1/Apo B significantly abnormally lower (p < .001) compared to Gp I. In Gp IV patients, there was no significant difference in lipid profile compared to Gp I. With the use of Max-EPA in 5 patients with hypertriglyceridemia, there was a significant improvement in hypertriglyceridemia (p < .05). Our study suggests: 1) significant hypertriglyceridemia does develop in a majority of CRF patients. The abnormality probably improves with dialysis treatment and renal transplantation. 2) A lower Apo A1/Apo B ratio in CRF patients may account for higher risk of atherosclerosis. 3) Fish oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids improves hypertriglyceridemia of CRF.