alexa Dyslipidemia in the era of HIV protease inhibitors.


Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

Author(s): Stein JH

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Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors are associated with metabolic abnormalities that may increase risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease, including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and central obesity. Dyslipidemia, characterized by hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, small low- and high-density lipoprotein particles, and in some cases lipoprotein(a) excess, can be severe and has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and carotid atherosclerosis. The mechanisms underlying protease inhibitor-associated dyslipidemia have not been elucidated completely, but appear to involve hepatic overproduction of very low-density lipoproteins and to a lesser extent, impaired clearance. Insulin resistance appears to mediate part of the adverse lipoprotein changes observed in patients taking protease inhibitors. Ongoing epidemiological and surrogate endpoint studies are investigating the atherogenicity of these medications. Until the risk associated with use of protease inhibitors is better understood, identifying patients at high risk for adverse vascular events such as heart attacks, cardiac death, and stroke is a high priority. This article reviews the lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities associated with use of protease inhibitors, possible mechanisms for protease inhibitor-associated dyslipidemia, its potential atherogenicity, and use of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Guidelines for the management of patients with dyslipidemia. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA) This article was published in Prog Cardiovasc Dis and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

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