Author(s): Adams DS, Robinson KR, Fukumoto T, Yuan S, Albertson RC, , Adams DS, Robinson KR, Fukumoto T, Yuan S, Albertson RC,
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Abstract Biased left-right asymmetry is a fascinating and medically important phenomenon. We provide molecular genetic and physiological characterization of a novel, conserved, early, biophysical event that is crucial for correct asymmetry: H+ flux. A pharmacological screen implicated the H+-pump H+-V-ATPase in Xenopus asymmetry, where it acts upstream of early asymmetric markers. Immunohistochemistry revealed an actin-dependent asymmetry of H+-V-ATPase subunits during the first three cleavages. H+-flux across plasma membranes is also asymmetric at the four- and eight-cell stages, and this asymmetry requires H+-V-ATPase activity. Abolishing the asymmetry in H+ flux, using a dominant-negative subunit of the H+-V-ATPase or an ectopic H+ pump, randomized embryonic situs without causing any other defects. To understand the mechanism of action of H+-V-ATPase, we isolated its two physiological functions, cytoplasmic pH and membrane voltage (Vmem) regulation. Varying either pH or Vmem, independently of direct manipulation of H+-V-ATPase, caused disruptions of normal asymmetry, suggesting roles for both functions. V-ATPase inhibition also abolished the normal early localization of serotonin, functionally linking these two early asymmetry pathways. The involvement of H+-V-ATPase in asymmetry is conserved to chick and zebrafish. Inhibition of the H+-V-ATPase induces heterotaxia in both species; in chick, H+-V-ATPase activity is upstream of Shh; in fish, it is upstream of Kupffer's vesicle and Spaw expression. Our data implicate H+-V-ATPase activity in patterning the LR axis of vertebrates and reveal mechanisms upstream and downstream of its activity. We propose a pH- and Vmem-dependent model of the early physiology of LR patterning.
This article was published in Development
and referenced in Biological Systems: Open Access