Author(s): Lawn SD, Myer L, Orrell C, Bekker LG, Wood R, Lawn SD, Myer L, Orrell C, Bekker LG, Wood R
Abstract Share this page
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To determine rates, risk factors and causes of death among patients accessing a community-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme both prior to and following initiation of treatment. METHODS: All in-programme deaths were ascertained between September 2002 and March 2005 among treatment-naive patients enrolled into a prospective community-based ART cohort in Cape Town, South Africa. RESULTS: Of 712 patients (median CD4 cell count, 94 cells/microl), 578 (81\%) started triple ART a median of 29 days after enrollment. 68 (9.5\%) patients died during 563 person-years of observation. The high pretreatment mortality rate of 35.6 deaths/100 person-years [95\% confidence interval (CI), 23.0-55.1) decreased to 2.5/100 person-years (95\% CI, 0.9-6.6) at 1 year among those who received ART. However, within the first 90 days from enrollment, 29 of 44 (66\%) deaths occurred among patients awaiting ART; these would not be identified by an on-treatment analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that risk of death (both pre-treatment and on-treatment) was independently associated with baseline CD4 cell count and World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage; stage 4 disease was the strongest risk factor. Major attributed causes of death were wasting syndrome, tuberculosis, acute bacterial infections, malignancy and immune reconstitution disease. CONCLUSIONS: Most early in-programme deaths occurred among patients with advanced immunodeficiency but who had not yet started ART. Programme evaluation using on-treatment analyses greatly underestimated early mortality. This mortality would be reduced by minimizing unnecessary in-programme delays in treatment initiation and by starting ART before development of WHO stage 4 disease.
This article was published in AIDS
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research