Author(s): Plavka R, Kopeck P, Sebron V, Leisk A, Svihovec P,
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine whether early surfactant administration is superior to selective delayed treatment in terms of improving survival and/or reducing chronic lung disease in extremely premature neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) treated by high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). DESIGN: Prospective randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Tertiary neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in the Perinatology Center of Prague. PATIENTS: Forty-three extremely premature infants who needed artificial ventilation within 3 h after delivery. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned to either early ( n=21) or delayed (n=22) administration of surfactant. All were ventilated by HFOV as the primary mode of ventilation using the high volume strategy aimed at optimizing lung volume. Curosurf at a dose of 100 mg/kg was given as a single bolus via the endotracheal tube within 1 min immediately after intubation in the early group (EARL), or during HFOV only when defined criteria were reached in the delayed (DEL) group. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: No differences were noted in demographic data between the two groups. Fewer infants randomized to the EARL group required oxygen use or died at 36 weeks (combined outcome 29\% vs 64\%, p=0.021), and there was a lower incidence of any intraventricular hemorrhage in this group (43 vs 82\%, p=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: When compared to delayed dosing, early administration of surfactant followed by HFOV facilitates and accelerates respiratory stabilization during the acute phase of severe RDS, may reduce the incidence of chronic lung disease or death and may positively influence the incidence of severe intracranial pathology in extremely premature infants with primary surfactant insufficiency.
This article was published in Intensive Care Med
and referenced in Journal of Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine