Author(s): Buyukkamaci N, Koken E
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Abstract Excessive water consumption in pulp and paper industry results in high amount of wastewater. Pollutant characteristics of the wastewater vary depending on the processes used in production and the quality of paper produced. However, in general, high organic material and suspended solid contents are considered as major pollutants of pulp and paper industry effluents. The major pollutant characteristics of pulp and paper industry effluents in Turkey were surveyed and means of major pollutant concentrations, which were grouped in three different pollution grades (low, moderate and high strength effluents), and flow rates within 3000 to 10,000m(3)/day range with 1000m(3)/day steps were used as design parameters. Ninety-six treatment plants were designed using twelve flow schemes which were combinations of physical treatment, chemical treatment, aerobic and anaerobic biological processes. Detailed comparative cost analysis which includes investment, operation, maintenance and rehabilitation costs was prepared to determine optimum treatment processes for each pollution grade. The most economic and technically optimal treatment processes were found as extended aeration activated sludge process for low strength effluents, extended aeration activated sludge process or UASB followed by an aeration basin for medium strength effluents, and UASB followed by an aeration basin or UASB followed by the conventional activated sludge process for high strength effluents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Sci Total Environ
and referenced in Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering