Author(s): Petala M, Samaras P, Zouboulis A, Kungolos A, Sakellaropoulos G
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Abstract The objective of this work was the examination of the efficiency of coagulation and ozonation processes for the production of reclaimed wastewater with low toxicity. Municipal secondary effluents were treated by FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3 (alum), and a commercial substance at metal ion concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mmol/L. Alternatively, the effluents were treated by ozonation in a semibatch ozone reactor. The feed gas was introduced at a flowrate of 3 L/min containing ozone at various concentrations, ranging between 2.5 and 8 mg/L; ozone residence times were 2, 5, 15, and 30 min. The toxic effects of the advanced treated effluents were examined by a battery of tests using the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the freshwater crustaceans Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, and Thamnocephalus platyurus, and the rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus. The addition of alum decreased the toxic effect of reclaimed wastewater on immobilization of D. pulex, from 90 to 60\%. Ozonation was also effective for toxicity removal, which decreased to 25\% effect on D. pulex after treatment by 2.5 mg O3/L for 2 min. However, acute toxic effects after ozonation, were observed on V. fischeri and were related to ozone gas concentration and contact time. At the highest ozone dosage, the toxicity reached almost 100\% inhibition of bioluminescence after 15 min. The toxicity of the ozonated effluents to bacteria decreased with sample storage time and was almost negligible after 48 h, indicating that the potential adverse effect of reclaimed wastewaters on receiving waters might be reduced by storage for a certain time. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This article was published in Environ Toxicol
and referenced in Hydrology: Current Research