alexa Effect of age on spermiogram of Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal crossbred bulls.
Veterinary Sciences

Veterinary Sciences

Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology

Author(s): Mandal DK, Kumar M, Tyagi S

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Abstract This study was conducted on 94 Frieswal (5/8 Holstein Friesian 3/8 Sahiwal) crossbred bulls of three different grades, categorized based on their semen freezability visualising Group 1 (consistently freezable semen producer bulls, N = 11), Group 2 (inconsistent freezable, N = 16) and Group 3 (Non freezable, N = 67). Each group was further divided into two classes that is young (up to 30 months) and adult (31 to 70 months) bulls depending upon their age. Sperm morphology was studied by using the eosin-nigrosin staining technique. Bulls age significantly (P < 0.01) affected semen quality and sperm morphology. In adult bulls, semen volume, mass activity and sperm concentration were 36\%, 17.56\% and 19.6\%, respectively, higher than young. Initial progressive motility (\%) and livability showed significant (P < 0.01) improvement with the advancement of age (43.37 ± 1.21 and 67.71 ± 1.11, respectively, in young; 53.02 ± 1.11 and 74.17 ± 1.03, respectively, in adult). In young bulls, sperm head, mid piece, tail abnormality and total abnormal sperm percent (12.38 ± 0.92, 4.87 ± 0.24, 11.01 ± 0.60 and 28.26 ± 1.34, respectively) were 1.85, 1.27, 1.20 and 1.44 folds higher than that of their mature stage (6.69 ± 0.64, 3.82 ± 0.32, 9.14 ± 0.64 and 19.66 ± 1.31, respectively). Significant reduction (P < 0.01) in micro cephalic sperm, free heads, bent mid piece, looped mid piece and proximal protoplasmic droplets were observed at mature age as compared with their younger stage. In bulls of consistent freezing category, abnormal sperm heads significantly decreased from 4.40 ± 0.31\% to 3.28 ± 0.02\% on maturity. Similarly, in inconsistent freezing grade bulls sperm head abnormality (9.28 ± 0.75\% to 5.13 ± 1.20\%) and total abnormal sperm percent (24.89 ± 1.43 to 18.73 ± 3.40) was decreased over the age. On the contrary, in non-freezing category bulls' sperm morphology did not show significant (P > 0.05) improvement with age advancement, rather some abnormalities like long slender head, under developed/deformed head, abaxial implantation of mid piece, double mid piece, stump tail and distal protoplasmic droplets tend to increased significantly (P < 0.05) with age of bulls. Results indicated that in potential Frieswal bulls semen quality and sperm morphology were improved from young to mature stage, where as, in poor quality (non-freezing) semen producer bulls neither the morphology nor the semen quality showed any improvement with maturity. It was recommended that crossbred bulls producing more than 25\% morphologically abnormal sperms in young age (below 30 months) along with poor progressive motility (<50\%) and low sperm concentration (<1000 million/ml) need immediate culling with out any expectation of further improvement in semen quality with age advancement. This article was published in Animal and referenced in Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology

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