Author(s): Kasiske BL, Kalil RS, Ma JZ, Liao M, Keane WF
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative effect of different antihypertensive agents on proteinuria and renal function in patients with diabetes. DATA SOURCES: We used MEDLINE and bibliographies in recent articles to identify studies of the effects of antihypertensive agents on renal function in patients with diabetes. STUDY SELECTION: We selected 100 controlled and uncontrolled studies that provided data on renal function, proteinuria, or both, before and after treatment with an antihypertensive agent. DATA EXTRACTION: Data on blood pressure, renal function, proteinuria, patient characteristics (for example, age, sex, and type of diabetes), and study design (for example, random allocation and the use of a placebo) were extracted from selected studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors decreased proteinuria independent of changes in blood pressure, treatment duration, and the type of diabetes or stage of nephropathy, as well as study design (P < 0.0001). Reductions in proteinuria from other antihypertensive agents could be entirely explained by changes in blood pressure. Blood pressure reduction in itself was associated with a relative increase in glomerular filtration rate (regression coefficient [+/- SE], 3.70 +/- .92 mL/min for each reduction of 10 mm Hg in mean arterial pressure; P = 0.0002); however, compared with other agents, ACE inhibitors had an additional favorable effect on glomerular filtration rate that was independent of blood pressure changes (3.41 +/- 1.71 mL/min; P = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can decrease proteinuria and preserve glomerular filtration rate in patients with diabetes. These effects occur independent of changes in systemic blood pressure.
This article was published in Ann Intern Med
and referenced in Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics