Author(s): Nagler R, Lischinsky S, Diamond E, Drigues N, Klein I,
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Abstract Exposure of human plasma in vitro to gas-phase cigarette smoke (CS) causes a marked modification of plasma proteins as measured by protein carbonyl assay. Aldehydes present in CS may cause this elevation of protein carbonyls by reacting with sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Saliva is the first body fluid to confront the inhaled CS. Thus, in vitro exposure of saliva to nine "puffs" of CS also showed a distinct increase in protein carbonyls. Ascorbate and desferrioxamine mesylate had little effect on protein carbonyl formation, while GSH and N-acetylcysteine considerably inhibited the accumulation of protein carbonyls due to CS exposure. Following the exposure to CS, the activities of several salivary enzymes-amylase, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and acid phosphatase-were found to be significantly reduced (34, 57, and 77\%, respectively). However, CS had no effect on the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. Addition of 1 mM of GSH and N-acetylcysteine considerably protected LDH and amylase activities, suggesting that sulfhydryl groups are affected in LDH and amylase. On the other hand, addition of 1 mM ascorbate caused a further loss of LDH and amylase activities, which could be partially prevented by the addition of desferrioxamine mesylate, implicating metal-catalyzed oxidation processes. Finally, loss of acid phosphatase activity was completely unaffected by any of the above antioxidants. It is concluded that the loss of salivary enzyme activities may be due to various agents in the CS that affect the enzyme activities via different mechanisms. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
This article was published in Arch Biochem Biophys
and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery