Author(s): Shapira L, Wilensky A, Kinane DF
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Abstract AIM: To review the association between genetic variability and the inflammatory response induced by periodontal infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search of MEDLINE-PubMed was performed from January 2000 up to and including March 2005. The search included all types of publications, published in English without other limitations. The following search terms were used: "cytokine polymorphism", "gene polymorphism", "periodontitis", "gingivitis", "inflammation" and "host-response". The papers resulting from the above search were used as an additional source for relevant articles. RESULTS: Genetic variability was examined for the correlation to clinical indicators of inflammation such as bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival inflammation, cytokine in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and cytokine production by inflammatory cells. According to the current literature, most of the studies found no association between genetic variability and BOP, gingival inflammation or cytokine concentrations in the GCF. These studies were hampered by inappropriate study designs and the use of inflammatory parameters as secondary rather than primary outcome variables. The data suggest that the production of inflammatory mediators by inflammatory cells may be affected by different genetic traits but further studies are needed in order to establish this association. CONCLUSIONS: To date, there is no clear correlation between any of the gene polymorphisms and clinical indicators of inflammation. The powering of studies to reveal associations between single or multiple nucleotide polymorphisms and inflammatory parameters will need to involve a much larger number of subjects than were used in the past. The available data (including the interleukin-1 composite genotype) do not currently support the utility of such tests in the diagnosis and prognostic assessments of periodontal diseases.
This article was published in J Clin Periodontol
and referenced in Journal of Womens Health Care