Author(s): Hurtado MA, Racotta IS, Civera R, Ibarra L, HernndezRodrguez M,
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Abstract Fatty acid composition of cellular membranes can modify permeability and can modulate the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Although highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) improve survival and osmoregulatory capacity to low salinities in penaeid shrimp, the possible mechanisms have not been established. For this purpose the influence of HUFA supplementation in diet (2.9 vs. 34\% HUFA proportion to total fatty acids) on osmoregulatory responses of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei submitted to an acute (15 h) or chronic exposure (21 days), to low (5 g L(-1)) and high salinities (50 g L(-1)) was analyzed. Shrimp fed the high-HUFA diet, had higher concentration of main HUFA (20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3) in polar lipids of gills. Osmotic pressure in hemolymph was significantly affected by salinity in acute (640, 751, 847 mOsm/kg for 5, 30 and 50 g L(-1), respectively), and chronic exposure (645, 713, 814 mOsm/kg), but variations between them were small compared to environmental salinity (206, 832, 1547 mOsm/kg), indicating that osmoregulation was achieved in a matter of hours. An increase in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was observed only after a chronic exposure to low salinity. Free amino acids (FAA), mainly alanine and arginine, were higher at 30 (control) and 50 g L(-1) in accordance to their role as organic osmolites. Neither osmotic pressure, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, nor FAA was affected by HUFA supplementation. However, higher water content in gills of shrimp exposed to low salinities was counteracted by increased HUFA content, which could be a result of changes in water permeability of gills. The osmoregulatory capacity of penaeid shrimp to low and high salinities was achieved within 15 h of acclimation and did not depend on HUFA supplementation in the diet.
This article was published in Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol
and referenced in Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development