Author(s): Jiang Y, Ptrier C, Waite TD
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Abstract The sonolysis of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and aniline in O2-saturated aqueous solutions was performed at 610 kHz with ultrasonic power of 25 W and aqueous temperature of 15 +/- 1 degrees C. The initial rate of degradation of both 4-NP and aniline in sonolysis of aqueous media follows pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Investigation of the H2O2 generation rate in phosphate buffer media (0.01 M) over the range of pH 2-9 revealed a maximum yield at pH approximately 3.2. The pH, which results in modification of the physical properties (including charge) of molecules with ionisable functional groups, plays an important role in the sonochemical degradation of chemical contaminants. For hydrophilic substrates, the neutral species more easily diffuse to and accumulate at the hydrophobic interface of liquid-gas bubbles in comparison with their corresponding ionic forms. As a consequence, the degradation rate of 4-NP under ultrasonic irradiation decreases with increasing pH. In contrast, the disappearance rate of aniline exhibits a maximum under alkaline conditions due to the high solubility of the ionic anilinium ion and the (potentially) preferential movement of the uncharged form to the interface. Additionally, the rate of reaction of the uncharged aniline molecule (which dominates at pH > 4.6) with hydroxyl radicals is reported to be about three times as fast as the rate of reaction of the cationic anilinium species.
This article was published in Ultrason Sonochem
and referenced in Hydrology: Current Research