Author(s): Vaddi HK, Wang LZ, Ho PC, Chan SY
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Abstract The objective of this work is to enhance the permeation of haloperidol through the rat skin in vitro by using various enhancers at a concentration of 1 mg/ml in the saturated drug solution and analysing the dose-dependent diffusion profile for the enhancers which significantly increased permeation at this concentration compared with the control. Enhancers belonging to various chemical classes like the vitamins (ascorbic acid), surfactants (cetrimide, polysorbate 20), sulfoxides (dimethyl sulfoxide), glycols (polyethylene glycol 400, propylene glycol) and amides (urea) were used. Amber glass Franz-type diffusion cells were used for the permeation studies and haloperidol was made soluble in aqueous solution with the aid of lactic acid. Ascorbic acid and cetrimide increased flux and permeability coefficient significantly. From the dose-dependent permeation studies, it was concluded that ascorbic acid enhanced the permeation by increasing the solubility of the drug in the vehicle thus providing a high concentration gradient across the skin, whereas cetrimide enhanced the permeation by increasing the thermodynamic activity which may be due to solubilization of skin lipids by micelles. Polysorbate 20 decreased the enhancer index by decreasing the thermodynamic activity. None of the enhancers changed the lag time except for urea which decreased the lag time probably by its binding with keratin. Dimethyl sulfoxide, polyethylene glycol 400 and propylene glycol did not have a significant effect on haloperidol permeation compared with control.
This article was published in Int J Pharm
and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology