Author(s): Romanos GE, Strub JR
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Abstract Fibrin sealants are very useful in different surgical fields. Fixation of free gingival grafts, root coverage procedures, and other techniques increasing connective tissue attachment may be associated with the application of Tissucol in periodontology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the fibrin sealant in the extracellular matrix, as well as alterations of the connective tissue matrix during wound-healing processes. In the back dermis of 15 Net male rats, Tissucol was implanted after intraperitoneal anesthesia. The implant material was placed in subcutaneous pockets (2 cm in length) which were sutured with interproximal sutures (test and control pockets). At 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after surgery, biopsies of the healed and surrounding tissues were taken, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and examined histologically and immunohistochemically with antibodies against collagen types I, III, IV, V, VI, and VII. The findings showed thick and thin collagen type I and III fibers, respectively, with different orientations localized around the implant material. An increased amount of blood vessels and capillaries (their basement membranes containing collagen type IV) was observed during wound healing which may be associated with the implantation of the sealant. Collagen type V fibers were localized from the first days to the 4th postoperative week and, without any inflammatory reaction (according to histologic staining), formed a fibrillar extracellular matrix with high collagenase resistance. Collagen type VI showed a microfibrillar pattern of distribution, and collagen type VII was localized in the dermo epidermo junction and very deep in the connective tissue in the form of anchoring fibers (only in the test group) during the 4 postoperative weeks of healing. The data showed that Tissucol is a biocompatible component which cannot produce any extensive inflammatory reaction in the matrix. New blood vessel formation, an epithelial-connective tissue interface with high stability, as well as matrix alterations with high resistance in the proteolytic enzymes (i.e., collagenases) can be induced in the connective tissue after use of a fibrin sealant. All of these characteristics may be of great importance in connective tissue healing in periodontal surgical procedures.
This article was published in J Biomed Mater Res
and referenced in JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science