Author(s): Moreau D, Clauw F, Martine L, Grynberg A, Rochette L,
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Abstract This study was carried out in order to determine if the efficiency of amiodarone, a class III antiarrhythmic agent, is associated with changes in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. A population of 30 rats were treated with amiodarone (100 mg/kg/day) for 5 days. A second population receiving only vehicle was used as control. The hearts were perfused according to the working mode. After 15 min of normoxic perfusion, the left main coronary artery was ligated and the ligation was maintained for 20 min. The ligation was removed and reperfusion continued for a further 30 min. The electrocardiogram was monitored continuously. At the end of perfusion, the ischemic and non ischemic areas were visually separated and mitochondria were harvested from each area. Their oxidative and energy metabolism were assessed with palmitoylcarnitine as substrate in 2 respiration media differing in their free calcium concentration (0 or 0.34 microm). In normoxic conditions, amiodarone treatment increased the cardiac metabolic efficiency (mechanical work to oxygen consumption ratio). The local ischemia decreased the aortic and coronary flows without modifying the cardiac metabolic efficiency. Amiodarone treatment maintained the aortic flow at a significantly higher value; the duration of severe arrhythmias was significantly decreased by the drug. The reperfusion of the ischemic area allowed the partial recovery of fluid dynamics. The coronary flow was restored to 89\% of the pre ischemic value. Conversely, the aortic flow never exceeded that measured at the end of ischemia, partly due to the important development of severe arrhythmias. The recovery of aortic flow and metabolic efficiency during reperfusion was improved by amiodarone treatment; ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation duration were reduced. In the mitochondria issued from the normoxic area, the energy metabolism was not altered by the amiodarone treatment, but the presence of calcium in the respiration medium modified the oxidative phosphorylation. The divalent cation slightly decreased the state III respiration rate and increased noticeably the state IV respiration rate. This was associated with an important mitochondrial AMP production and maintenance of ADP in the respiration medium. This energy wasting was reported to decrease the mitochondrial metabolic efficiency. After an ischemia-reperfusion sequence, mitochondrial oxidation phosphorylation was reduced and amiodarone treatment amplified this decrease. This was presumably due to an increased mitochondrial calcium accumulation. Thus, the beneficial properties of amiodarone during reperfusion are supposed to be due to a protection against the deleterious effect of excess matrix calcium on mitochondrial energy metabolism.
This article was published in Mol Cell Biochem
and referenced in Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy