Author(s): Lee WA, Buchanan TS, Rogers MW
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Abstract Nine standing subjects performed unilateral arm flexion movements over an eight-fold range of speeds, under two behavioral conditions. In the visually-guided condition, a visual target informed subjects about the correct movement speed. Seven subjects also made movements of different speeds during a self-paced condition, without a visual target. Angular displacement and acceleration of the arm, and EMG activity from the hamstrings (HM), erector spinae (ES) and the anterior deltoid (AD) muscles were measured. The following results were observed. Mean rectified amplitudes of EMG activity in HM and ES were typically correlated with the average arm acceleration and presumably the disturbance to posture and/or balance. HM and ES amplitudes were correlated for only six subjects. Functions relating the ratios of HM/ES EMG amplitudes to acceleration varied between subjects. HM onset latencies were highly variable for slow movements and usually lagged movement. For movements above a threshold-like point in acceleration, HM latencies were correlated with arm acceleration and recruited before movement. ES latencies were constant for fast movements, and negatively correlated with acceleration for slower movements. The recruitment order of HM and AD was influenced by the behavioral condition but not by arm acceleration for fast movements. HM and AD were recruited coincidentally for visually-guided movements, while for self-paced movements, HM was recruited before AD. We conclude that for the arm flexion task: HM and ES are not tightly coupled; both behavioral and mechanical conditions affect the recruitment of postural muscles; and postural and focal components of the movement are probably organized by parallel processes.
This article was published in Exp Brain Res
and referenced in Journal of Novel Physiotherapies