Author(s): Brito AF, Broderick GA, Reynal SM
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Abstract Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows that were part of a larger lactation trial were used in 2 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to quantify effects of supplementing protein as urea, solvent soybean meal (SSBM), cottonseed meal (CSM), or canola meal (CM) on omasal nutrient flows and microbial protein synthesis. All diets contained (\% of dry matter) 21\% alfalfa silage and 35\% corn silage plus 1) 2\% urea plus 41\% high-moisture shelled corn (HMSC), 2) 12\% SSBM plus 31\% HMSC, 3) 14\% CSM plus 29\% HMSC, or 4) 16\% CM plus 27\% HMSC. Crude protein was equal across diets, averaging 16.6\%. The CSM diet supplied the least rumen-degraded protein and the most rumen-undegraded protein. Microbial nonammonia N flow was similar among the true protein supplements but was 14\% lower in cows fed urea. In vivo ruminal passage rate, degradation rate, and estimated escape for the 3 true proteins were, respectively, 0.044/h, 0.105/h, and 29\% for SSBM; 0.051/h, 0.050/h, and 51\% for CSM; and 0.039/h, 0.081/h, and 34\% for CM. This indicated that CSM protein was less degraded because of both a faster passage rate and slower degradation rate. Omasal flow of individual AA, branched-chain AA, essential AA, nonessential AA, and total AA all were lower in cows fed urea compared with one of the true protein supplements. Among the 3 diets supplemented with true protein, omasal flow of Arg was greatest on CSM, and omasal flow of His was greatest on CSM, intermediate on CM, and lowest on SSBM. Lower flows of AA and microbial nonammonia N explained lower yields of milk yield and milk components observed on the urea diet in the companion lactation trial. These results clearly showed that supplementation with true protein was necessary to obtain sufficient microbial protein and rumen-undegraded protein to meet the metabolizable AA requirements of high-producing dairy cows.
This article was published in J Dairy Sci
and referenced in Advances in Dairy Research