alexa Effects of external calcium on the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside Rd by Paecilomyces bainier 229-7.
Toxicology

Toxicology

Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology

Author(s): Ye L, Zhang C, Li J, Shi X, Feng M

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Abstract Calcium is a known signalling molecule in eukaryotic cells and plays a central role in the regulation of many cellular processes. In the following study, we report on the effect of external calcium treatments on the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside Rd by Paecilomyces bainier 229-7. We observed that the intracellular calcium content of P. bainier 229-7 mycelia was increased in response to exposure to high external Ca(2+) concentrations. Both ginsenoside Rd biotransformation and β-glucosidase activity were both found to be dependent on the external calcium concentration. At an optimal Ca(2+) concentration of 45 mM, maximal ginsenoside Rd bioconversion rate of 92.44\% was observed and maximal β-glucosidase activity of 0.1778 U was reached in a 72-h biotransformation. The Ca(2+) channel blocker Verapamil blocked the trans-membrane influx of calcium and decreased ginsenoside Rd biotransformatiom. In addition, β-glucosidase activity and ginsenoside Rd content decreased by 36.0 and 29.2\% respectively after a 72-h incubation in the presence of 0.05 mM Calmodulin (CaM) antagonist Perphenazine. These results suggest that both Ca(2+) channels and CaM are involved in ginsenoside Rd biotransformation via regulation of β-glucosidase activity. This is the first report regarding the effects of calcium signal transduction on biotransformation and enzyme activity in fungi. This article was published in World J Microbiol Biotechnol and referenced in Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology

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