Author(s): Vemuri GN, Eiteman MA, Altman E
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Abstract Escherichia coli NZN111, which lacks activities for pyruvate-formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and AFP111, a derivative which contains an additional mutation in ptsG (a gene encoding an enzyme of the glucose phophotransferase system), accumulate significant levels of succinic acid (succinate) under anaerobic conditions. Plasmid pTrc99A-pyc, which expresses the Rhizobium etli pyruvate carboxylase enzyme, was introduced into both strains. We compared growth, substrate consumption, product formation, and activities of seven key enzymes (acetate kinase, fumarate reductase, glucokinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, isocitrate lyase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and pyruvate carboxylase) from glucose for NZN111, NZN111/pTrc99A-pyc, AFP111, and AFP111/pTrc99A-pyc under both exclusively anaerobic and dual-phase conditions (an aerobic growth phase followed by an anaerobic production phase). The highest succinate mass yield was attained with AFP111/pTrc99A-pyc under dual-phase conditions with low pyruvate carboxylase activity. Dual-phase conditions led to significant isocitrate lyase activity in both NZN111 and AFP111, while under exclusively anaerobic conditions, an absence of isocitrate lyase activity resulted in significant pyruvate accumulation. Enzyme assays indicated that under dual-phase conditions, carbon flows not only through the reductive arm of the tricarboxylic acid cycle for succinate generation but also through the glyoxylate shunt and thus provides the cells with metabolic flexibility in the formation of succinate. Significant glucokinase activity in AFP111 compared to NZN111 similarly permits increased metabolic flexibility of AFP111. The differences between the strains and the benefit of pyruvate carboxylase under both exclusively anaerobic and dual-phase conditions are discussed in light of the cellular constraint for a redox balance.
This article was published in Appl Environ Microbiol
and referenced in Journal of Computer Science & Systems Biology