Author(s): Fischer B, Gleason C, Asthana S
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: Results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) suggested that hormone therapy (HT) may be detrimental to cognitive health. This article reviews clinical studies that address issues relevant to those results. DESIGN: Literature review. INTERVENTION(S): A search of Pubmed and Web of Science was conducted using the search terms HT and cognition, HT and mood. Clinical and observational studies were selected if they were published after the year 2000. Theories of HT mechanisms of action, pharmacology, biology, and observational and clinical trials are discussed. RESULT(S): Although observational and clinical trials show conflicting findings, methodologic considerations must be acknowledged. HT formulation and dose, route of administration, timing of initiation, length of treatment, and health of participants all contribute to inconsistencies in results. Transdermal estradiol and micronized progesterone administered at time of menopause are generally associated with cognitive and affective benefit. CONCLUSION(S): At the present time, results from existing studies are equivocal regarding the benefits of HT on cognition and affect. Future studies, such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS), should address methodologic inconsistencies to provide clearer answers to this important question. Published by Elsevier Inc.
This article was published in Fertil Steril
and referenced in Journal of Womens Health Care