Author(s): Xu L, Jones R, Meissner G
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Abstract The effects of the two local anesthetics tetracaine and procaine and a quaternary amine derivative of lidocaine, QX314, on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release have been examined by incorporating the purified rabbit skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel complex into planar lipid bilayers. Recordings of potassium ion currents through single channels showed that Ca(2+)- and ATP-gated channel activity was reduced by the addition of the tertiary amines tetracaine and procaine to the cis (cytoplasmic side of SR membrane) or trans (SR lumenal) side of the bilayer. Channel open probability was lowered twofold at tetracaine and procaine concentrations of approximately 150 microM and 4 mM, respectively. Hill coefficients of 2.0 and greater indicated that the two drugs inhibited channel activity by binding to two or more cooperatively interacting sites. Unitary conductance of the K(+)-conducting channel was not changed by 1 mM tetracaine in the cis and trans chambers. In contrast, cis millimolar concentrations of the quaternary amine QX314 induced a fast blocking effect at positive holding potentials without an apparent change in channel open probability. A voltage-dependent block was observed at high concentrations (millimolar) of tetracaine, procaine, and QX314 in the presence of 2 microM ryanodine which induced the formation of a long open subconductance. Vesicle-45Ca2+ ion flux measurements also indicated an inhibition of the SR Ca2+ release channel by tetracaine and procaine. These results indicate that local anesthetics bind to two or more cooperatively interacting high-affinity regulatory sites of the Ca2+ release channel in or close to the SR membrane. Voltage-dependent blockade of the channel by QX314 in the absence of ryanodine, and by QX314, procaine and tetracaine in the presence of ryanodine, indicated one low-affinity site within the conduction pathway of the channel. Our results further suggest that tetracaine and procaine may primarily inhibit excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle by binding to the high-affinity, regulatory sites of the SR Ca2+ release channel.
This article was published in J Gen Physiol
and referenced in Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research