Author(s): Blumentrath J, Neye H, Verspohl EJ
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Abstract Both 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) are active metabolites of vitamin A (retinol). There exists an interaction between retinoid receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARgamma). To define their functions in an insulin secreting system the effects of ATRA, 9cRA and the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone on cell proliferation, insulin release and glucose transporter (GLUT) 2 of INS-1 cells were tested. Retinoic acid receptor (RAR-alpha and -gamma) and retinoid X receptor (RXR-alpha and -beta) proteins are present (immunoblots). Both 9cRA and ATRA inhibit INS-1 cell proliferation ([3H]-thymidine assay) in a concentration dependent manner. Both 9cRA and ATRA increased insulin release, but only ATRA ralsed the GLUT 2 mRNA in a bell-shaped concentration response curve after 48 h. The insulinotropic effect of one compound is not significantly superimposed by the other indicating that the same binding sites are used by 9cRA and ATRA. The acute and chronic effects of the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone on insulin release were additionally determined since glitazones act as transcription factors together with RXR agonists. At high concentrations (100 microM) rosiglitazone inhibited glucose (8.3 mM) stimulated insulin secretion (acute experiment over 60 min). Insulin secretion, however, was increased during a 24 h treatment at a concentration of 10 microM and again inhibited at 100 microM. Changes in preproinsulin mRNA expression were not observed. Rosiglitazone (100 microM) increased GLUT 2 mRNA paralleled by an increase of GLUT 2 protein, but only after 24 h of treatment. This data indicate that RAR and RXR mediate insulin release. The changes in GLUT 2 have no direct impact on insulin release; the inhibition seen at high concentrations of either compound is possibly the result of the observed inhibition of cell proliferation. Effects of rosiglitazone on preproinsulin mRNA and GLUT 2 (mRNA and protein) do not play a role in modulating insulin secretion. With the presence of an RXR receptor agonist the effect of rosiglitazone on insulin release becomes stimulatory. Thus the effects of RAR-, RXR agonists and rosiglitazone depend on their concentrations, the duration of their presence and are due to specific interactions. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This article was published in Cell Biochem Funct
and referenced in Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences