alexa Efficacy of ethanol against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus polymicrobial biofilms.
Genetics & Molecular Biology

Genetics & Molecular Biology

Fungal Genomics & Biology

Author(s): Peters BM, Ward RM, Rane HS, Lee SA, Noverr MC

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Abstract Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungus, and Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial pathogen, are two clinically relevant biofilm-forming microbes responsible for a majority of catheter-related infections, with such infections often resulting in catheter loss and removal. Not only do these pathogens cause a substantial number of nosocomial infections independently, but also they are frequently found coexisting as polymicrobial biofilms on host and environmental surfaces. Antimicrobial lock therapy is a current strategy to sterilize infected catheters. However, the robustness of this technique against polymicrobial biofilms has remained largely untested. Due to its antimicrobial activity, safety, stability, and affordability, we tested the hypothesis that ethanol (EtOH) could serve as a potentially efficacious catheter lock solution against C. albicans and S. aureus biofilms. Therefore, we optimized the dose and time necessary to achieve killing of both monomicrobial and polymicrobial biofilms formed on polystyrene and silicone surfaces in a static microplate lock therapy model. Treatment with 30\% EtOH for a minimum of 4 h was inhibitory for monomicrobial and polymicrobial biofilms, as evidenced by XTT {sodium 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide inner salt} metabolic activity assays and confocal microscopy. Experiments to determine the regrowth of microorganisms on silicone after EtOH treatment were also performed. Importantly, incubation with 30\% EtOH for 4 h was sufficient to kill and inhibit the growth of C. albicans, while 50\% EtOH was needed to completely inhibit the regrowth of S. aureus. In summary, we have systematically defined the dose and duration of EtOH treatment that are effective against and prevent regrowth of C. albicans and S. aureus monomicrobial and polymicrobial biofilms in an in vitro lock therapy model.
This article was published in Antimicrob Agents Chemother and referenced in Fungal Genomics & Biology

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