Author(s): Motzer RJ, Escudier B, Oudard S, Hutson TE, Porta C,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Everolimus (RAD001) is an orally administered inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a therapeutic target for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We did a phase III, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of everolimus in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma whose disease had progressed on vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy. METHODS: Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma which had progressed on sunitinib, sorafenib, or both, were randomly assigned in a two to one ratio to receive everolimus 10 mg once daily (n=272) or placebo (n=138), in conjunction with best supportive care. Randomisation was done centrally via an interactive voice response system using a validated computer system, and was stratified by Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prognostic score and previous anticancer therapy, with a permuted block size of six. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, assessed via a blinded, independent central review. The study was designed to be terminated after 290 events of progression. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00410124. FINDINGS: All randomised patients were included in efficacy analyses. The results of the second interim analysis indicated a significant difference in efficacy between arms and the trial was thus halted early after 191 progression events had been observed (101 [37\%] events in the everolimus group, 90 [65\%] in the placebo group; hazard ratio 0.30, 95\% CI 0.22-0.40, p<0.0001; median progression-free survival 4.0 [95\% CI 3.7-5.5] vs 1.9 [1.8-1.9] months). Stomatitis (107 [40\%] patients in the everolimus group vs 11 [8\%] in the placebo group), rash (66 [25\%] vs six [4\%]), and fatigue (53 [20\%] vs 22 [16\%]) were the most commonly reported adverse events, but were mostly mild or moderate in severity. Pneumonitis (any grade) was detected in 22 (8\%) patients in the everolimus group, of whom eight had pneumonitis of grade 3 severity. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with everolimus prolongs progression-free survival relative to placebo in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma that had progressed on other targeted therapies.
This article was published in Lancet
and referenced in Journal of Thyroid Disorders & Therapy