Author(s): Henkin RI, Martin BM, Agarwal RP
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Abstract BACKGROUND: We previously described a disorder in 18 patients with decreased parotid saliva gustin/carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI secretion associated with loss of taste (hypogeusia) and smell (hyposmia) and distorted taste (dysgeusia) and smell (dysosmia). Because gustin/CAVI is a zinc-dependent enzyme we instituted a study of treatment with exogenous zinc to attempt to stimulate synthesis/secretion of gustin/CAVI and thereby attempt to correct the symptoms of this disorder. METHODS: Fourteen of the 18 patients with this disorder completed the study. They were treated with 100 mg of exogenous zinc daily for 4 to 6 months, in an open clinical trial. Both before and after treatment, measurements were obtained of parotid saliva gustin/CAVI, parotid saliva, serum and urine zinc, taste and smell function, and, in some patients, examination of circumvallate taste buds by electron microscopy. RESULTS: Treatment success was predicated upon significant increases in parotid saliva gustin/CAVI. This occurred in 10 of the 14 patients who were labeled responders; they also exhibited improvement in taste and smell acuity, a diminution in dysgeusia and dysosmia and increased zinc concentrations in parotid saliva, serum, and urine. Taste bud morphology returned to normal in each responder in whom it was measured. No increase in gustin/CAVI occurred in 4 patients who were labeled nonresponders; they exhibited no improvement in taste or smell acuity and no increases in parotid saliva zinc. However, serum and urine zinc increased to levels similar to those measured in the 10 responders. Two of 4 nonresponders reported diminution in dysgeusia and dysosmia. Taste bud morphology did not change from the abnormal state in the 1 nonresponder in whom it was measured. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc treatment is effective in patients in whom this trace metal increases synthesis/secretion of gustin/CAVI and ineffective in those in whom it does not. Increased gustin/CAVI in this disorder is probably associated with zinc stimulation of the gene responsible for the synthesis/secretion of gustin/CAVI. Among nonresponders, zinc was ineffective for several possible reasons, including resistance to zinc and possible sialylation of gustin/CAVI, which may render it functionally ineffective. Results suggest the hypothesis that gustin/CAVI is a trophic factor that promotes growth and development of taste buds through its action on taste bud stem cells.
This article was published in Am J Med Sci
and referenced in Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology