alexa Efficient syntheses of the keto-carotenoids canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, and astacene.
Environmental Sciences

Environmental Sciences

Journal of Ecosystem & Ecography

Author(s): Choi S, Koo S

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Abstract Three keto-carotenoids were prepared by the oxidation of the stable C(40) trisulfone 6, which has been used as the key compound in our beta-carotene synthesis. The first allylic oxidation to the unsaturated ketone and the second oxidation to the alpha-hydroxyketone produced the C(40) trisulfones 7 and 10, respectively. The Ramberg-Backlund reaction of the oxidized C(40) trisulfone was efficiently effected by the use of a mild base, NaOMe, in the presence of CCl(4) as a halogenating agent to give the C(40) disulfones 8 and 11. Base-promoted dehydrosulfonation reaction of the disulfone compounds produced the fully conjugated polyenes of canthaxanthin (1), astaxanthin (2), and astacene (3). This article was published in J Org Chem and referenced in Journal of Ecosystem & Ecography

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