Author(s): Agarwal S, Reddy GV, Reddanna P
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Abstract Eicosanoids, a family of oxygenated metabolites of eicosapolyenoic fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, formed via the lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase (COX) and epoxygenase pathways, play an important role in the regulation of various pathophysiological processes, including inflammation and cancer. COX-2, the inducible isoform of COX, has emerged as the key enzyme regulating inflammation, and promises to play a considerable role in cancer. Although NSAIDs have been in use for centuries, the COX-2 selective inhibitors - coxibs - have emerged as potent anti-inflammatory drugs with fewer gastric side effects. As COX-2 plays a major role in neoplastic transformation and cancer growth, by downregulating apoptosis and promoting angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, coxibs have a potential role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Recent studies indicate their possible application in overcoming drug resistance by downregulating the expression of MDR-1. However, the cardiac side effects of some of the coxibs have limited their application in treating various inflammatory disorders and warrant the development of COX-2 inhibitors without side effects. This review will focus on the role of COX-2 in inflammation and cancer, with an emphasis on novel approaches to the development of COX-2 inhibitors without side effects.
This article was published in Expert Rev Clin Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy