Author(s): Baker MA, He SQ
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Abstract Cellular damage produced by ionizing radiation and peroxides, hydrogen peroxide (HOOH) and the organic peroxides tert-butyl (tBuOOH) or cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH) were compared. DNA breaks, toxicity, malondialdehyde production, and the rate of peroxide disappearance were measured in a human adenocarcinoma cell line (A549). The alkaline and neutral filter elution assays were used to quantitate the kinetics of single and double strand break formation and repair (SSB and DSB), respectively. Peroxides, at 0.01-1.0 mM, produce multiphasic dose response curves for both toxicity and DNA SSBs. Radiation, 1-6 Gy, produced a shouldered survival curve, and both DNA SSB and DSBs produced in cells x-rayed on ice were nearly linear with dose. The peroxides produced more SSBs than radiation at equitoxic doses. X-ray induced DNA single strand breaks were rejoined rapidly by cells at 37 degrees C with approximately 80\% of initial damage repaired in 20 min. Peroxide induced SSBs were maximal after 15 min at 37 degrees C. Rejoining proceeded thereafter, but at a rate less than for x-ray induced strand breaks. Significant DNA DSBs could not be achieved by peroxides even at concentrations 50-fold higher than required to produce SSBs. HOOH treatment of DNA on filters following cell lysis and proteolysis produced SSBs. CuOOH and tBuOOH produced no SSBs in lysed cell DNA. None of the peroxides produced DSBs when incubated with lysed cell DNA. Malondialdehyde was released from cells incubated with organic hydroperoxides, but not HOOH, nor up to 40 Gy of x-rays. HOOH was metabolized three times faster than the organic peroxides. The overall results demonstrate the necessity for a metabolically active cell environment to elaborate maximal DNA strand breaks and cell death at hydroperoxide concentrations of 10(-4) or greater, but prevent strand breaks and stimulate cell growth at 10(-5) M.
This article was published in Free Radic Biol Med
and referenced in Journal of Experimental Food Chemistry